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Biomass Energy Economics

John R. Benemann

Year: 1980
Volume: Volume 1
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol1-No1-11
View Abstract

Abstract:
The energy crisis has become a permanent fixture in our lives. It is apparent that the brief era, roughly 1920-1970, of rela-tively low and declining fuel costs is over for good. The world economic system must adjust to a new era of high-cost fuels, supply dislocations, and transition to new energy sources. Large uncertainties exist about the future availability, production costs, and market prices of the conventional fuels-oil, gas, and coal. Even greater uncertainties exist about the costs of the alternative energy sources-nuclear power and renewable resources, principally solar. As more information becomes available, nuclear power is constantly required to increase its safety level, becoming ever more expensive. The high-risk, very large, very long-term capital



Economic Effects of Increased Penetration of Solar Energy

Edward A. Hudson

Year: 1980
Volume: Volume 1
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol1-No3-5
View Abstract

Abstract:
Recent energy policy proposals have given an important place to solar energy, and other new-technology energy sources, in the projected development of the U.S. energy system over the rest of the century. For example, the Domestic Policy Review of Solar Energy (U.S. Department of Energy, 1979), presented to the President in February 1979, raised the possibility that 20 percent of primary energy input in the year 2000 could be supplied from solar and other renewable sources. Since these technologies now provide only a small fraction of total energy input, changes of the magnitude involved in these proposals imply a major restructuring of the energy system.



The Alcohol Fuels Option in the Third World

William Ramsay

Year: 1981
Volume: Volume 2
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol2-No1-7
View Abstract

Abstract:
Energy planners in developing areas have become increasingly interested in the possibility of using alcohol-either ethanol (grain alcohol) or methanol (wood alcohol) as a substitute for gasoline refined from imported oil. The most prominent example is Brazil, where there has been interest in alcohol fuels for the past fifty years, and where a serious alcohol program has been in place since 1975 (Hammond, 1977). Brazil is the leader, but not the only participant, in such work. Other Latin American countries, like Costa Rica and the Dominican Republic, have expressed great interest in alcohol, and Colombia has committed itself to large-scale production of alcohol during the 1980s. Asian countries, such as Thailand and Indonesia, have investigated the option, and serious work is being done in Papua New Guinea (IEE, 1980, pp. 27-29). And, of course, planners in Third World countries are influenced by the current gasohol program in the United States, by programs in New Zealand and Australia, and by experiments with methanol in West Germany and Sweden (LEE, 1980, pp. 24-26).



The U.N. Conference on New and Renewable Sources of Energy: Response to the Challenge of the Global Energy Transition

Morris Miller

Year: 1981
Volume: Volume 2
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol2-No3-11
View Abstract

Abstract:
The world community is being forced to navigate a transition, over the next few decades, to a future that must entail a radical shift away from dependence on hydrocarbons. The pressure for change arising from the 1973 "oil price shock" is mounting with each year, despite the periodic respites characterized as "oil gluts."



The Role of Renewables in Hawaii's Energy Future

Jayant Sathaye and Henry Ruderman

Year: 1983
Volume: Volume 4
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol4-No2-9
View Abstract

Abstract:
Hawaii is extremely vulnerable to disruptions in the world oil market. Over 90 percent of the state's energy comes from imported petroleum, most of which comes from foreign sources. Petroleum also has an indirect impact because of the large role tourism plays in the Hawaiian economy.



Book Review - Oil Supply and Prices: What Went Right in 1980?

R. Glenn Hubbard

Year: 1984
Volume: Volume 5
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol5-No3-13
No Abstract



Book Review - Petroleum Tax Analysis: North Sea

Jim Moose

Year: 1984
Volume: Volume 5
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol5-No3-14
No Abstract







Biogas Development in India and the PRC

V. P. Kharbanda and M. A. Qureshi

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No3-4
View Abstract

Abstract:
The years since the 1973 spurt in oil prices have witnessed a growing interest in renewable energy sources. Increased attention has been paid to the development of technologies using new and renewable sources of energy, such as solar, wind, tidal, biomass, and hydropower. These sources are all the more important in developing countries with scarce conventional sources of energy like coal and oil. The new and renewable energy resource systems offer attractive prospects because they are pollution-free, unlimited, and often cheap. They can also help preserve ecosystems and retard degradation of the environment. Moreover, renewable energy resources can be developed extraordinarily rapidly, as shown by the experience with wood fuel in United States, small hydropower and biogas in the PRC, and energy crops in Brazil. In some countries technical advances have brought wind machines, solar cells, and biogas close to commercialization for heating and electricity generation. Thus far, over 3 million solar water heaters have been sold in Japan and over 5 million wood stoves in the United States.



Solar Versus Conservation Tax Credits

H. Craig Petersen

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No3-12
View Abstract

Abstract:
In the late 1970s concern about energy shortages motivated Congress to establish federal income tax credits to individuals for (1) household energy conservation expenditures and (2) purchases of renewable energy systems. Under terms of the Energy Tax Act of 1978, the tax credit for conservation expenditures is 15 percent of the amount invested, with a maximum credit of $300. The credit for renewable energy systems (such as solar space or water heaters) was initially set at 30 percent of the first $2000 and 20 percent of the next $8000. In 1980, the Windfall Profit Tax Act increased the tax credit for renewable energy systems to 40 percent of the first $10,000 in qualifying expenditures-a maximum credit of $4000.



The Failure of Solar Tax Incentives: A Dynamic Analysis

G. Thomas Sav

Year: 1986
Volume: Volume 7
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol7-No3-4
View Abstract

Abstract:
In recent years we have witnessed governmental attempts to acceler-ate the stock demand for energy-saving durables with financial incentives implemented through the tax mechanism. At the federal level, income tax credits for the purchase of energy-saving durable stocks were introduced through the Energy Tax Act of 1978 (Public Law 95-618). In addition, many states have enacted their own energy-saving tax incentive legislation. A substantial body of this tax legislation has been aimed at accelerating substitution of solar-produced energy for conventional, nonrenewable energy resources in the residential and commercial building sectors. Along these lines, the bulk of engineering (so-called life-cycle) cost studies accompanying much of this legislation predicted that solar tax incentives would generate widespread market penetration with little or no delay.' However, casual observation reveals that tax-induced solar energy substitutions have not been widespread.This paper presents a dynamic model of investment decisions in solar processes-a model that captures the effect of tax legislation aimed at accelerating market penetration of solar energy.



Renewable Energy in Developing Countries: Priorities and Prospects

Dr. David Jhirad

Year: 1987
Volume: Volume 8
Number: Special Issue
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol8-NoSI-6
No Abstract




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