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Natural Gas from Seaweed: Is Near-Term R&D Funding by the U.S. Gas Industry Warranted?

Chennat Gopalakrishnan

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No4-10
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper is the result of a study of critical factors the Gas Research Institute (GRI) needed to consider in deciding whether to continue R&D funding of a Marine Biomass Project (M BP). The mission of this project is to determine the commercial feasibility of large marine biomass farms for methane conversion and to develop such farms if they prove viable (Aquaculture Associates, 1982).



Energy, Economics, and Foregin Policy in the Soviet Union

Arthur W. Wright

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No4-11
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper is the result of a study of critical factors the Gas Research Institute (GRI) needed to consider in deciding whether to continue R&D funding of a Marine Biomass Project (M BP). The mission of this project is to determine the commercial feasibility of large marine biomass farms for methane conversion and to develop such farms if they prove viable (Aquaculture Associates, 1982).



Modeling and Measuring Natural Resource Substitution

William A. Donnelly

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No4-12
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper is the result of a study of critical factors the Gas Research Institute (GRI) needed to consider in deciding whether to continue R&D funding of a Marine Biomass Project (M BP). The mission of this project is to determine the commercial feasibility of large marine biomass farms for methane conversion and to develop such farms if they prove viable (Aquaculture Associates, 1982).



Energy, Foresight, and Strategy

Mark Newton Lowry

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No4-13
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper is the result of a study of critical factors the Gas Research Institute (GRI) needed to consider in deciding whether to continue R&D funding of a Marine Biomass Project (M BP). The mission of this project is to determine the commercial feasibility of large marine biomass farms for methane conversion and to develop such farms if they prove viable (Aquaculture Associates, 1982).



Fuelwood in Urban Markets: A Case Study of Hyderabad

Ruthann C. Moomy

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No4-14
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper is the result of a study of critical factors the Gas Research Institute (GRI) needed to consider in deciding whether to continue R&D funding of a Marine Biomass Project (M BP). The mission of this project is to determine the commercial feasibility of large marine biomass farms for methane conversion and to develop such farms if they prove viable (Aquaculture Associates, 1982).



Bioenergy and Economic Development

Ruthann C. Moomy

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No4-15
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper is the result of a study of critical factors the Gas Research Institute (GRI) needed to consider in deciding whether to continue R&D funding of a Marine Biomass Project (M BP). The mission of this project is to determine the commercial feasibility of large marine biomass farms for methane conversion and to develop such farms if they prove viable (Aquaculture Associates, 1982).



Acknowledgments

n/a

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No4-16
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper is the result of a study of critical factors the Gas Research Institute (GRI) needed to consider in deciding whether to continue R&D funding of a Marine Biomass Project (M BP). The mission of this project is to determine the commercial feasibility of large marine biomass farms for methane conversion and to develop such farms if they prove viable (Aquaculture Associates, 1982).



Energy R & D Decionmaking in Developing Countries

Mohan Munasinghe

Year: 1987
Volume: Volume 8
Number: Special Issue
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol8-NoSI-8
No Abstract



Optimal Choice of R&D Strategy for Enhanced Recovery from Petroleum Reservoirs

Gunnar Stensland and Arild N. Nystad

Year: 1987
Volume: Volume 8
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol8-No1-8
View Abstract

Abstract:
Off the coast of Norway is a huge, undeveloped petroleum reservoir. The exploitation of this resource is a challenge to the oil industry both because of its specific reservoir geology and its deep water location. One of the decisions that must be made regarding this field is the choice of the injection method.Our report discusses decision rules for the choice of R&D strategies for methods of supplementary recovery.



An Analysis of the U.S. Department of Energy's Civilian R & D Budget

Ronald J. Sutherland

Year: 1989
Volume: Volume 10
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol10-No1-5
View Abstract

Abstract:
The Department of Energy's R&D budget has experienced major changes in funding during the last two administrations. These changes are explained by administration policies that are based on perceived conditions of market failure. Government funding of R&D can be supported on grounds of externalities, public goods and the absence of national contingency markets. Such funding cannot be justified on grounds of being long-term or high-risk. A portfolio model offers insights as to the appropriate definition of risk, a social discount rate and a balanced portfolio of R&D projects.



End-Use R&D: Technology Development Strategy for an Integrated Market

Clark W. Gellings and Jerome P. Harper

Year: 1989
Volume: Volume 10
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol10-No3-2
View Abstract

Abstract:
This article provides a value maximization strategy for end-use R&D planning which meets both supply-side and demand-side R&D objectives. The strategy is compatible with conventional econometric market analysis, power system demand-side management or least-cost planning methods, and operations research approaches common to manufacturing. The strategy permits incorporation of supply and demand uncertainties into the R&D planning process. It also provides a methodology for determining the optimal set of R&D investments. These R&D investments will result in products that increase the value of electrical service, promote the efficient operation of electric power systems, and ensure the productivity of manufacturing operations.



Comparison of Climate Policies in the ENTICE-BR Model

David Popp

Year: 2006
Volume: Endogenous Technological Change
Number: Special Issue #1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-VolSI2006-NoSI1-7
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper uses the ENTICE-BR model to study the effects of various climate stabilization policies. Because the ENTICE-BR model includes benefits from reduced climate damages, it is possible to calculate the net economic impact of each policy. In general, only the least restrictive concentration limit is welfare enhancing. While the policies are welfare enhancing in simulations using optimistic assumptions about the potential of the backstop energy technology, such assumptions mean that the backstop is also used in the no-policy base case, so that climate change itself is less of a problem. Finally, assumptions about the nature of R&D markets are important. Removing the assumption of partial crowding out from energy R&D nearly doubles the gains from policy-induced energy R&D.



Technical Change Theory and Learning Curves: Patterns of Progress in Electricity Generation Technologies

Tooraj Jamasb

Year: 2007
Volume: Volume 28
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol28-No3-4
View Abstract

Abstract:
Better understanding of the role of learning in technical progress is important for the development of innovation theory and technology policy. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the effect of learning and technical change in electricity generation technologies. We use simultaneous two-factor learning and diffusion models to estimate the effect of learning by doing and learning by research on technical progress for a range of technologies in four stages of development. We find learning patters broadly in line with the perceived view of technical progress. The results generally show higher learning by research than learning by doing rates. Moreover, we do not find any development stage where learning by doing is stronger than learning by research. We show that simple learning by doing curves overstate the effect of learning in particular for newer technologies. Finally, we find little substitution potential between learning by doing and research for most technologies.



How Does Climate Policy Affect Technical Change? An Analysis of the Direction and Pace of Technical Progress in a Climate-Economy Model

Carlo Carraro, Emanuele Massetti, Lea Nicita

Year: 2009
Volume: Volume 30
Number: Special Issue #2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol30-NoSI2-2
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper analyses whether and how a climate policy designed to stabilize greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is likely to change the direction and pace of technical progress. The analysis is performed using an upgraded version of WITCH, a dynamic integrated regional model of the world economy. In this version, a non-energy R&D sector, which enhances the productivity of the capital-labor aggregate, has been added to the energy R&D sector included in the original WITCH model. We find that, as a consequence of climate policy, R&D is re-directed towards energy knowledge. Nonetheless, total R&D investments decrease, due to a more than proportional contraction of non-energy R&D. Indeed, when non-energy and energy inputs are weakly substitutable, the overall contraction of the economic activity associated with a climate policy induces a decline in total R&D investments. However, enhanced investments in energy R&D and in the energy sector are found not to �crowd-out� investments in non-energy R&D.



Powering Progress: Restructuring, Competition, and R&D in the U.S. Electric Utility Industry

Paroma Sanyal and Linda R. Cohen

Year: 2009
Volume: Volume 30
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol30-No2-3
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper investigates the R&D behavior of regulated firms when they transition to a competitive environment. Using data from the US electricity market from 1990-2000, we analyze how competition, institutional changes, and political constraints have contributed to the precipitous decline in R&D expenditure by regulated utilities. We find that firms reduce their R&D significantly at the very early stages of restructuring or even when they expect restructuring to occur. Once the emerging institutional structure becomes clear, R&D spending recovers but is later offset by another decline when restructuring legislation is enacted. In addition, greater competition and the nearing of such competition adversely affects research spending. In aggregate, R&D declines by 78.6 percent after electricity markets are restructured. Firm and state characteristics matter, and a majority of the research is conducted by large generation companies located in pro-research states, especially if they are part of a larger holding company. Such characteristics have a different impact on research spending in the pre-and post-restructured periods.



Demand Subsidies Versus R&D: Comparing the Uncertain Impacts of Policy on a Pre-commercial Low-carbon Energy Technology

Gregory F. Nemet and Erin Baker

Year: 2009
Volume: Volume 30
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol30-No4-2
View Abstract

Abstract:
We combine an expert elicitation and a bottom-up manufacturing cost model to compare the effects of R&D and demand subsidies. We model their effects on the future costs of a low-carbon energy technology that is not currently commercially available, purely organic photovoltaics (PV). We find that: (1) successful R&D enables PV to achieve a cost target of 4c/kWh, (2) the cost of PV does not reach the target when only subsidies, and not R&D, are implemented, and (3) production-related effects on technological advance�learning-by-doing and economies of scale�are not as critical to the long-term potential for cost reduction in organic PV than is the investment in and success of R&D. These results are insensitive to two levels of policy intensity, the level of a carbon price, the availability of storage technology, and uncertainty in the main parameters used in the model. However, a case can still be made for subsidies: comparisons of stochastic dominance show that subsidies provide a hedge against failure in the R&D program.




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