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Petroleum Policy and Mexican Domestic Politics: Left Opposition, Regional Dissidence, and Official Apostasy

Edward J. Williams

Year: 1980
Volume: Volume 1
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol1-No3-4
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Abstract:
The impact of the petroleum industry on oil-producing countries has frequently emphasized the intimate interconnection and reciprocal influences of economic and political change. The agony of contemporary Iran is a dramatic example, but only one of many that help prove the point. In Nigeria's recent history, the competition for control of petroleum resources was one factor instigating a brutal civil war. In Venezuela, a new era of constitutional stability flowed from an expanded economic base provided by petroleum export earnings. In the United States, the rise to national prominence of the Texas politicos reflected the economic changes that evolved from petroleum discoveries.





Effects of Taxes and Price Regulation on Offshore Gas

Henry D. Jacoby and James L. Smith

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Special Issue
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-NoSI-21
No Abstract



Oil Production Policy and Economic Development in Mexico

Hossein Razavi

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No2-5
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Abstract:
The economics literature of the oil market is primarily concerned with the behavior of OPEC member countries, viewing the non-OPEC oil exporters as insignificant. Recently, however, oil exports by non-OPEC countries have expanded substantially, increasing the role these countries play in the oil market. Among these countries, Mexico is of special interest because it is the largest non-OPEC oil exporter, with huge petroleum resources; at the same time, it has an enormous requirement for foreign exchange.



The Timing of Oil and Gas Leasing on the Outer Continental Shelf: Theory and Policies

Marshall Rose, Donald Rosenthal

Year: 1989
Volume: Volume 10
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol10-No2-8
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Abstract:
Our paper considers three policies in the design of offshore oil and gas lease sales that will help promote an economically efficient program of energy exploration and development on the Outer Continental Shelf. The first policy, having the government select when specific tracts should be offered for lease, involves extensive data requirements and is not practical. The other two policies--setting the royalty rate and stipu-lating a minimum bid level--require far less data and probably promote economic efficiency more effectively- The paper develops a method for calculating the economically efficient royalty rate and minimum bid level given the existing institutional structure of the U.S. offshore leasing program. A case study of the Gulf of Mexico demonstrates the approach.



Energy Efficiency and Capital Embodied Technical Change: The Case of Mexican Cement Manufacturing

Thomas Sterner

Year: 1990
Volume: Volume 11
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol11-No2-9
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Abstract:
This paper analyses energy efficiency in the Mexican cement industry by studying disaggregated data at the plant and production unit level. A short-run production function is examined to look at the substitution possibilities between labour and energy with given equipment, but these are found to be limited (as expected). Instead, reduction of energy use per unit of output is mainly due to capital embodied technical progress: the most important improvements in plant efficiency are related to investments in new pieces of specific equipment. Average energy intensity of the branch as a whole is, therefore, mainly explained by capacity expansion. Finally, the importance of factor prices and the relevance of our results to other industries are discussed.



The Impact of Natural Gas Imports on Air Pollutant Emissions in Mexico

Alberto Bustani and Elisa Cobas

Year: 1993
Volume: Volume14
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol14-No3-1
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Abstract:
This paper analyzes the impact that natural gas imports could have on fuel emissions in northern Mexico. We discuss the problem created in the 1980s when a shift from natural gas to residual oil in industrial processes increased emissions of air pollutants significantly. The benefits of substituting leaded for unleaded gasoline in the 1990s are discussed also.In July 1992 the Mexican government announced for the first time since oil nationalization that private companies in Mexico are allowed to directly import natural gas. The transportation of natural gas, however, remains reserved only for Pemex, the national oil company. This opens the possibility of reducing the burning of high-sulphur residual oil in both the industrial and the energy production sectors in Mexico, particularly in the northern region where only 6.7% of the of the country's natural gas is produced. Natural gas imports have also opened the possibility of using compressed natural gas (CNG) in vehicles in northern Mexico.



The Economics of Natural Gas in Mexico -- Revisited

Michelle Michot Foss, Francisco Garcia Hernandez, and William A. Johnson

Year: 1993
Volume: Volume14
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol14-No3-2
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Abstract:
How long will Mexico continue to be a net importer of natural gas? We explore this question and raise the logical corollary-will import volumes increase? During 1992, gas imports by Mexico peaked at 300 to 350 MMcf/d, primarily to serve incremental demand in Mexico's northern region. We begin our investigation by suggesting that natural gas demand in Mexico is a junction of GDP and the real price of gas, the latter being tied to U. S. prices. Low U. S. gas prices have driven Mexico's import strategies. If downward pressure on U. S. gas prices continues, the import market in Mexico could be preserved through the end of this century. Other factors contribute to the prospects of a long-run import strategy, in particular, capital investment constraints at Pemex; the need to substitute cleaner burning natural gas for the residual fuel oil used widely in Mexico; and a North American free trade zone which may encourage greater gas imports by Mexico. We conclude that it is reasonable for Mexico to remain a net importer of gas for at least the next 10 years.



Natural Gas Trade in North America: Building up to the NAFTA

Andre Plourde

Year: 1993
Volume: Volume14
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol14-No3-3
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Abstract:
This paper traces the evolution of natural gas trade among Canada, Mexico, and the United States in the 1967-1992 period. In addition, the provisions of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) that relate to natural gas trade are examined in the light of the corresponding aspects of the Canada-United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA). One of the main conclusions to emerge is that exports from Canada to the United States would likely continue to dominate North American natural gas trade patterns under the NAFTA. Past experience suggests that regulatory policies play a crucial role in determining trade patterns. In the case of Canada and the United States, the policies of deregulation implemented by the two countries prior to 1989 have proven to be much more important than has the FTA in encouraging cross-border trade in natural gas. Since the NAFTA allows Mexico to maintain a highly interventionist approach to energy policy, an internally-driven process of policy change will be required to liberalize natural gas trade between Mexico and the other parties to the Agreement. A few specific developments relating to natural gas trade among the NAFTA parties are also examined in the light of the Agreement.



The North American Free Trade Agreement: Implications for the Partiees and World Oil Markets

Philip K. Verleger, Jr.

Year: 1993
Volume: Volume14
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol14-No3-4
View Abstract

Abstract:
The proposed North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) has been criticized because it failed to open Mexico's hydrocarbon reserves to development by private parties. This failure is an economic tragedy. Consumer welfare will clearly be reduced as a consequence. However, the loss is confined to Mexico where economic growth rates may be reduced by as much as one half of one percent per year. Otherwise, the agreement will have insignificant impacts on the world oil market. Future levels of production and prices will be unaffected by the agreement.




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