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Manufacturing Energy Use in Eight OECD Countries: Trends through 1988

Richard B. Howarth and Lee Schipper

Year: 1991
Volume: Volume 12
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol12-No4-2
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Abstract:
This paper reviews the evolution of manufacturing energy use in eight industrialized nations: West Germany, Denmark, France, Japan, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Manufacturing energy use fell in these nations by 16% between 1973 and 1988 while manufacturing value-added increased by 41%. Reduced energy intensities in six industry groups -- paper and pulp; chemicals; stone, clay and glass; iron and steel; nonferrous metals; and other manufacturing -- were the primary source of this apparent decoupling of energy use and output. Between 1973 and 1988, intensity reductions would have driven down sectoral energy use by 32% if the level and composition of output had remained constant. Structural change, or shifts in the product mi, would have reduced energy use by 11% if the total level of output and the energy intensities of each industry group had remained constant.



A Note: Will Tomorrow's Energy Efficiency Indices Prove Useful in Economic Studies?

Jay Zarnikau

Year: 1999
Volume: Volume20
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol20-No3-6
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Abstract:
Recent attempts to construct national energy efficiency indices begin with the construction of "Btu aggregates" which are developed by adding together different energy resources based on their heating potential values or the heating values of the primary energy resources used to produce the energy resources which are ultimately consumed. The resulting indices may be of limited use in economic studies, where it is often important to consider the relative economic value of various component resources and their substitutability in response to relative price changes. In such applications, But aggregates will tend to suggest greater achievements in energy efficiency during periods of electrification than would an approach which aggregates different energy resources based on their market values.





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