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Modeling Energy Conservation Programs: An Application to Natural Gas Utilities

Adam Rose

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No4-7
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In recent years conservation received a great deal of attention from energy managers at all levels. Some conservation measures were undertaken voluntarily because they were profitable. Others were adopted to comply with regulations, many of which were intended to reduce social costs of energy production and delivery. The 1970s have been characterized as the era of natural gas shortages, and conservation represented one of many reasonable alternatives for utilities confronted by potential and actual excess demand.

Structural Changes and Energy Consumption in the Japanese Economy 1975-95: An Input-Output Analysis

Xiaoli Han and TK. Lakshmanan

Year: 1994
Volume: Volume15
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol15-No3-9
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This paper analyzes the effects of the pervasive structural changes in the Japanese economy on its energy intensity in the decade 1975-85. It advances the energy input-output (I-O) structural decomposition analysis (SDA) in two ways. First, it introduces a double denominator method to relax the assumption that all electricity is derived from fossil fuels in energy I-O analysis. Second, it develops a model which identifies explicitly the effect of energy imports. The application of our model to the Japanese experience suggested that changes in final demand structure contributed more to reducing the energy intensity of the economy than the much discussed effects of changes in technology. The overall decline in the energy intensity of the economy was accompanied by drastic shifts in the fuel mix of its energy supply, in particular, a substitution of oil by natural gas.

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