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A Welfare Approach to Energy Pricing: A Case Study for India

Gopal K. Kadekodi

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No3-1
View Abstract

Abstract:
Because oil crises or other supply constraints distort energy production and demand management, energy pricing remains an important policy instrument of economic management. Moreover, for many developing countries, the problem of energy management includes the pricing of energy products within a framework of planning, as well as questions of supply. In many countries energy production and distribution are now publicly managed. Such public operations have to account for both efficiency in production and equity in distribution. The pricing of energy inputs thus emerges as a key planning parameter.



Biogas Development in India and the PRC

V. P. Kharbanda and M. A. Qureshi

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No3-4
View Abstract

Abstract:
The years since the 1973 spurt in oil prices have witnessed a growing interest in renewable energy sources. Increased attention has been paid to the development of technologies using new and renewable sources of energy, such as solar, wind, tidal, biomass, and hydropower. These sources are all the more important in developing countries with scarce conventional sources of energy like coal and oil. The new and renewable energy resource systems offer attractive prospects because they are pollution-free, unlimited, and often cheap. They can also help preserve ecosystems and retard degradation of the environment. Moreover, renewable energy resources can be developed extraordinarily rapidly, as shown by the experience with wood fuel in United States, small hydropower and biogas in the PRC, and energy crops in Brazil. In some countries technical advances have brought wind machines, solar cells, and biogas close to commercialization for heating and electricity generation. Thus far, over 3 million solar water heaters have been sold in Japan and over 5 million wood stoves in the United States.



Energy Pricing and Household Energy Consumption in India

Ramesh Bhatia

Year: 1988
Volume: Volume_9
Number: Special Issue 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol9-NoSI1-4
No Abstract



Integrated Energy Planning in India: A Modeling Approach

R. K. Pachauri and Leena Srivastava

Year: 1988
Volume: Volume 9
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol9-No4-3
View Abstract

Abstract:
The economic planning process in India can broadly be broken up into two steps: the building up of Five Year Plans and the specification of Annual Plans. Several planning models were used to arrive at a balanced allocation of resources for attaining the objectives and targets of growth and social welfare postulated in each Five Year Plan.



Fuelwood Use in Urban Areas: A Case Study of Raipur, India

M. Macauley, M. Naimuddin, P.C. Agarwal, and J. Dunkerley

Year: 1989
Volume: Volume 10
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol10-No3-10
View Abstract

Abstract:
Concern over deforestation in developing countries has led to increased interest in fuelwood markets, particularly the major market in cooking fuels for urban populations. This case study of Raipur, India, examines the use of cooking fuels by households and small commercial users, with emphasis on the role of fuelwood. It finds that total cooking energy consumption per household (in Btus) is relatively constant over a wide range of household income. However, the composition of fuel supplies varies with income, from a low-efficiency wood-based system in poor households to a higher-efficiency LPG-based system in higher-income households. Consumers evince a strong preferen-e for modern fuels, supporting the general pattern of inferiority of traditional fuels and the transition to modern fuels with increasing incomes.



Integration of Short and Medium/Long Term Planning in the Indian Power Sector

Kapil Thukral, S. Ramesh and Bindu Kaul

Year: 1990
Volume: Volume 11
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol11-No1-9
View Abstract

Abstract:
The power supply situation in India is characterized by shortages. In response to this situation, many industrial consumers have invested in captive generation facilities for their own use. Although the use of small, expensive, diesel-based captive generator sets may be rational from the viewpoint of the industrial entrepreneurs, their use is not the least-cost option for the Indian economy.



Barriers to Energy-Efficiency in Electricity Generation in India

Madhu Khanna and David Zilberman

Year: 1999
Volume: Volume20
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol20-No1-2
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper explores the sources and magnitude of energy-inefficiency in the electricity generating sector in India and its implications for carbon emissions from this sector. An econometric methodology is developed to disaggregate and quantify the contribution of technical and institutional factors to this inefficiency. The analysis demonstrates the potential for institutional and economic policy reforms that provide incentives for the adoption of efficiency-enhancing production practices to reduce carbon emissions while increasing net electricity generation, even with the existing capital equipment.



Productivity Trends in India's Energy Intensive Industries

Joyashree Roy, Jayant Sathaye, Alan Sanstad Puran Mongia and Katja Schumacher

Year: 1999
Volume: Volume20
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol20-No3-2
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper reports on an analysis of productivity growth and input trends in six energy intensive sectors of the Indian economy, using growth accounting and econometric methods. The econometric work estimates rates and factor price biases of technological change using a translog production model with an explicit relationship defined for technological change. Estimates of ownprice responses indicate that raising energy prices would be an effective carbon abatement policy for India. At the same time, our results suggest that, as with previous findings on the U.S. economy, such policies in India could have negative long run effects on productivity in these sectors. Inter-input substitution possibilities are relatively weak, so that such policies might have negative short and medium term effects on sectoral growth. Our study provides information relevant for the analysis of costs and benefits of carbon abatement policies applied to India and thus contributes to the emerging body of modeling and analysis of global climate policy.



India’s Non-CO2 GHG Emissions: Development Pathways and Mitigation Flexibility

P. R. Shukla, Amit Garg, Manmohan Kapshe, Rajesh Nair 

Year: 2006
Volume: Multi-Greenhouse Gas Mitigation and Climate Policy
Number: Special Issue #3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-VolSI2006-NoSI3-24
View Abstract

Abstract:
This paper analyses the future trends (2000-2030) in Methane and Nitrous Oxide emissions across four scenarios that have been developed for India. The future state of Indian economy in the next 30-years has been broadly visualized under four scenarios proposed as combinations of market integration (extent of liberalization, globalization and integration with the world markets) and nature of governance (centralization vs. decentralization). The methodology chosen for the development of these scenarios draws mainly from the IPCC SRES methodology. The paper presents CH4 and N2O emissions for each of the scenarios for all the major emitting sectors. The major sources of Methane emissions are livestock and paddy contributing to about 65% of the total emissions in 2000. The share of emissions from Municipal Solid Waste is also expected to rise with increasing urbanization. Nitrous Oxide emissions arise chiefly from synthetic fertilizer use (contributing 67% of total emissions) and from field burning of agricultural residue. The paper also presents mitigation analysis for CO2 and CH4 and long-term, hundred-year analysis for CO2, CH4 and N2O.



Diversity in Unity: An Empirical Analysis of Electricity Deregulation in Indian States

Anupama Sen and Tooraj Jamasb

Year: 2012
Volume: Volume 33
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol33-No1-4
View Abstract

Abstract:
As developing countries seek to improve their economic prospects, electricity reform has been widely viewed as a central part of this effort. While the focus of most research to date has been at economy or utility level, there has been much less research on regional outcomes. India presents a unique case, as its states share a common economic and political system, whilst having been given considerable flexibility in how they implement reform, thus allowing a comparative analysis of alternative approaches to reform. This study presents an econometric analysis of the determinants and impact of electricity reform in India, giving special regard to its political economy and regional diversity. It assesses how electricity reform in India has affected key economic variables that determine sectoral efficiency, prices and investment flows. We use panel data for 19 states, spanning 1991-2007, using dynamic panel data estimators. Results show that individual reform measures have affected key economic variables differently; thus the nature of reform in individual states would determine these economic outcomes. Findings suggest that due to political economy factors, outcomes have tended to be adverse in the initial stages of reform, as previously hidden distortions become apparent. The performance of reforms, however, may improve as the reform progresses beyond a `baseline' level.

Keywords: Electricity, India, Reform, Deregulation, Regional impacts




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