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Impacts of the German Support for Renewable Energy on Electricity Prices, Emissions, and Firms

Thure Traber and Claudia Kemfert

Year: 2009
Volume: Volume 30
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol30-No3-8
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Most models that are used to analyze support policies for renewable electricity neglect important market features like oligopolistic behavior, emission trading, and restricted cross-border transmission capacities. We use a quantitative electricity market model that accounts for these aspects and decompose the impact of the German Feed-in tariff (FIT) into two frequently counteracting effects: a substitution effect and a permit price effect. We find that the total effect of the policy increases the German consumer price slightly by three percent, while the producer price decreases by eight percent. In addition, emissions from electricity generation in Germany are reduced by eleven percent but are hardly altered on the European scale. Finally, it turns out that price-cost margins of almost all firms are increased by the FIT, while nonetheless, the profits of firms are significantly lowered unless the firms combine relatively carbon-intensive production with a weak connection to the German grid.

What Drives States to Support Renewable Energy?

Steffen Jenner, Gabriel Chan, Rolf Frankenberger, and Mathias Gabel

Year: 2012
Volume: Volume 33
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.33.2.1
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Why do states support electricity generation from renewable energy sources? Lyon/ Yin (2010), Chandler (2009), and Huang et al. (2007) have answered this question for the adoption of renewable portfolio standards (RPS) at the U.S. state level. This article supplements their work by testing the core hypotheses on the EU27 sample between 1990 and 2010. Furthermore, the article asks why the majority of EU states relies on feed-in-tariffs (FIT). The study conducts logistic time series cross-section regression analyses that run on a hazard model. Evidence in support of private interest theory and public interest theory is provided. (a) The existence of a solar energy association increases the probability of a state to adopt regulation. (b) Solar radiation, and (c) the unemployment rate also increase the odds. (d) Electricity market concentration decreases the probability of transition. Keywords: Energy policy, Renewable energy, Electricity, Feed-in-tariff, Hazard model, Public Choice

Integration of Renewables into the Ontario Electricity System

Brian Rivard and Adonis Yatchew

Year: 2016
Volume: Volume 37
Number: Bollino-Madlener Special Issue
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.37.SI2.briv
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The Ontario electricity industry has a 'hybrid' structure: electricity is bought and sold in a competitive wholesale electricity market while supply mix planning and procurement are conducted through a government agency. Most generation is secured through long-term contracts. Aggressive renewable energy programs have led to rapidly growing renewable capacity, mainly wind generation. Coal-fired generation has been eliminated and electricity sales have dropped. The competitive hourly market price has declined and there is a clear merit-order effect: an increase of wind generation from 500 MW to 1500 MW can be expected to decrease price by 7 CAD/MWh. However, the all-in price, which incorporates contractually guaranteed supply prices, has risen from about 60 to 100 CAD/MWh between 2009 and 2014. Operational and market integration of renewable resources has been achieved relatively smoothly. The procurement process is over-centralized: increased reliance on market discipline and greater separation between governmental policy makers and regulators would enhance both the efficacy and efficiency of decarbonization policies.

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