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Impact of Permit Allocation on Cap-and-trade System Performance under Market Power

Mei Wang and Peng Zhou

Year: 2020
Volume: Volume 41
Number: Number 6
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.41.6.mwan
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The presence of market power usually has negative impacts on the cost-effectiveness of the carbon market. As market power-induced efficiency loss depends on permit allocation, the choice of permit allocation methods is likely to affect the cost-effectiveness of the carbon market. This paper examines theoretically how the choice of emission permit allocation method affects the cost-effectiveness of an emissions trading system when market power exists. We find that, under grandfathering and benchmarking, the carbon market would be more efficient if the permits initially allocated to the dominant firm were closer to its CO2 emissions. Under auctioning, the dominant firm tends to lower the CO2 price, which may result in efficiency loss. By combining the modelling results of efficiency loss due to market power and the fairness in terms of CO2 cost pass-through, we finally provide some policy recommendations on how to choose a CO2 emission permit allocation method for different industries.

Does Global Value Chain Participation Decouple Chinese Development from CO2 Emissions? A Structural Decomposition Analysis

Hui Wang, Chen Pan, B.W. Ang, and Peng Zhou

Year: 2021
Volume: Volume 42
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.42.2.hwan
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Decoupling economic activities and CO2 emissions is central to achieving the climate goals of China. The country�s participation in global value chains has profound impacts on its economy as well as CO2 emissions. Assessing the impacts is fundamental to identifying strategies to decouple China�s development from emissions. To this end, we adopt the multi-region structural decomposition analysis technique to quantify the global value chain determinants of China�s CO2 emission intensity from both the production and consumption perspectives. It is found that China�s decoupling from emissions in 2007�2012 was driven mainly by global value chains. Nonetheless the decoupling slowed down after the global financial crisis. In particular, the value chains within China played a more important role in greening Chinese economy. Despite the considerable improvement in 2007�2012, global value chains remained the primary obstacle to environmental sustainability of China. More detailed results with policy implications are presented.

Distributed Renewable Energy Investment: The Effect of Time-of-Use Pricing

Lu-Miao Li, Peng Zhou, and Wen Wen

Year: 2023
Volume: Volume 44
Number: Number 5
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.44.5.luli
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This paper examines the effects of time-of-use (TOU) pricing on distributed renewable energy (DRE) investment for a non-power generating firm. We develop an electricity consumption cost-minimization model by considering the intermittent generation as well as the firm's electricity consumption. It has been found that implementing full retail prices compensation for the surplus renewable electricity is probably not good as it may lead to DRE over-investment. Moreover, we find that the firm's optimal investment strategy is not necessarily sensitive to the price signal of TOU pricing (i.e., the ratio of peak to off-peak price). Particularly, when the service-level difference in meeting a firm's electricity consumption between peak and off-peak periods by adopting DRE technology is above a critical threshold in relation to the peak time, a strong price signal will not promote the firm's optimal DRE capacity investment. This paper yields a policy insight that "getting the time right" may be more important than "getting the price right" in terms of enabling DRE investment for TOU pricing design.

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