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Climate Politics from Kyoto to Bonn: From Little to Nothing?

Christoph Bohringer

Year: 2002
Volume: Volume23
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol23-No2-2
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Abstract:
We investigate how the U.S. withdrawal from the Kyoto Protocol and the provisions of the Bonn climate Policy conference on sink credits and emissions trading will change the economic and environmental impacts of the Protocol in its original form. Based on simulations with a large-scale computable general equilibrium model, we find that the U.S. withdrawal and amendments of Bonn reduce the Kyoto Protocol's impact to business-as-usual without binding emission constraints. U.S. compliance under the new Bonn provisions, on the other hand, would accommodate a substantial cut in global emissions at relatively small compliance costs for OECD countries.



Assessing Emission Regulation in Europe: An Interactive Simulation Approach

Christoph Bohringer, Tim Hoffmann, Andreas Lange, Andreas Loschel, and Ulf Moslener

Year: 2005
Volume: Volume 26
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol26-No4-1
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Abstract:
Reimplementation of an EU-wide emissions trading system by means ofNational Allocation Plans is at the core of the European environmental policy agenda. EU Member States must allocate their national emission budgets under the EU Burden Sharing Agreement between energy-intensive sectors that are eligible for European emissions trading and the remaining segments of their economies that will be subject to complementary domestic emission regulation. We show that such hybrid emission regulation may lead to substantial excess costs compared to a comprehensive emissions trading system covering all segments of the economy. Furthermore, the hybrid system associated with the current design of National Allocation Plans is likely to discriminate against sectors that are not part of the emissions trading scheme. The interested reader can make use of a web-based interactive simulation model in order to specify and evaluate alternative settings of the EU emissions trading system.



Promoting Renewable Energy in Europe: A Hybrid Computable General Equilibrium Approach

Christoph Bohringer and Andreas Loschel

Year: 2006
Volume: Hybrid Modeling
Number: Special Issue #2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-VolSI2006-NoSI2-7
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Abstract:
We illustrate the use of a large-scale computable general equilibrium model to investigate the economic and environmental effects of renewable energy promotion within the European Union. Our hybrid model incorporates the technological explicitness of bottom-up energy system models for the electricity sector while production possibilities in other sectors are described at an aggregate level through top-down constant-elasticities-of-substitution (transformation) functions. The discrete activity analysis of technology options within conventional top-down computable general equilibrium models is possible when adopting the so-called mixed complementarity problem approach � a flexible mathematical representation of market equilibrium conditions which accommodates weak inequalities and complementary slackness.



Efficiency Gains from "What"-Flexibility in Climate Policy An Integrated CGE Assessment

Christoph Bohringer, Andreas Loschel and Thomas F. Rutherford

Year: 2006
Volume: Multi-Greenhouse Gas Mitigation and Climate Policy
Number: Special Issue #3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-VolSI2006-NoSI3-21
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Abstract:
We investigate the importance of �what�-flexibility on top of �where�- and �when�-flexibility for alternative emission control schemes that prescribe long-term temperature targets and eventually impose additional constraints on the rate of temperature change. We find that �what�-flexibility substantially reduces the economic adjustment costs. When comparing policies that simply involve long-term temperature targets against more stringent strategies with constraints on the rate of temperature increase, it turns out that the latter involve much higher costs. The cost difference may be interpreted as additional insurance payments if climate damages should not only depend on absolute temperature change but also on the rate of temperature change.



Unilateral Climate Policy: Can OPEC Resolve the Leakage Problem?

Christoph Bohringer, Knut Einar Rosendahl, and Jan Schneider

Year: 2014
Volume: Volume 35
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.35.4.4
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Abstract:
In the absence of a global agreement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, individual countries have introduced national climate policies. Unilateral action involves the risk of relocating emissions to regions without climate regulations, i.e., emission leakage. A major channel for leakage are price changes in the international oil market. Previous studies on leakage have assumed competitive behavior in this market. Here, we consider alternative assumptions about OPEC's behavior in order to assess how these affect leakage and costs of unilateral climate policies. Our results based on simulations with a large-scale computable general equilibrium model of the global economy suggest that assumptions on OPEC's behavior are crucial to the impact assessment of unilateral climate policy measures. We find that leakage through the oil market may become negative when OPEC is perceived as a dominant producer, thereby reducing overall leakage drastically compared to a setting where the oil market is perceived competitive.



Economic Impacts of Renewable Energy Production in Germany

Christoph Böhringer, Florian Landis, and Miguel Angel Tovar Reaños

Year: 2017
Volume: Volume 38
Number: KAPSARC Special Issue
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.38.SI1.cboh
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Abstract:
Over the last decade Germany has boosted renewable energy in power production by means of massive subsidies. The flip side are very high electricity prices which raise concerns that the transition cost towards a renewable energy system will be mainly borne by poor households. In this paper, we combine computable general equilibrium and microsimulation analyses to investigate the economic impacts of Germany's renewable energy promotion. We find that the regressive effects of renewable energy promotion could be attenuated by alternative subsidy financing mechanisms.



Efficient and Equitable Policy Design: Taxing Energy Use or Promoting Energy Savings?

Florian Landis, Sebastian Rausch, Mirjam Kosch, and Christoph Böhringer

Year: 2019
Volume: Volume 40
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.40.1.flan
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Abstract:
Should energy use be lowered by using broad-based taxes or through promoting and mandating energy savings through command-and-control measures and targeted subsidies? We integrate a micro-simulation analysis, based on a representative sample of 9,734 households of the Swiss population, into a numerical general equilibrium model to examine the efficiency and equity implications of these alternative regulatory approaches. We find that at the economy-wide level taxing energy is five times more cost-effective than promoting energy savings. About 36% of households gain under tax-based regulation while virtually all households are worse off under a promotion-based policy. Tax-based regulation, however, yields a substantial dispersion in household-level impacts whereas heterogeneous household types are similarly affected under a promotion-based approach. Our analysis points to important trade-offs between efficiency and equity in environmental policy design.





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