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Energy End-Use Structure of an Urban Society: The Case of Singapore

B. W. Ang

Year: 1989
Volume: Volume 10
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol10-No1-11
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Singapore, a city-state with a 1985 per capita income of USS6,250.. is a high-income developing country. The population is 2.56 million, and the population density of 4,150 per square kilometer is one of the highest in the world. The climate is equatorial. Singapore's energy end-use structure is interesting because the economy is at a transitional stage from a developing to an industrial one. A study of its changing energy use pattern may indicate possible future developments in urban energy use in other countries at a similar stage. The sectoral consumption breakdown is shown in Table 1, which refers to Singapore's internal energy demand balance.' The sectoral use breakdown is transportation 22 percent, industry 18 percent, domestic 6 percent, commercial and public sector uses. 10 percent, and energy sector 44 percent. If the consumption in the energy sector is allocated among the four final demand sectors. The breakdown would be transportation 22 percent, industry 35 percent, domestic 14 percent, and commercial and public 29 percent.

The Application of the Divisia Index to the Decomposition of Changes in Industrial Energy Consumption

X. Q. Liu, B. W. Ang and H.L. Ong

Year: 1992
Volume: Volume 13
Number: Number 4
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol13-No4-9
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We review a number of methods that have recently been proposed to decompose changes in industrial energy consumption. We then propose two parametric methods based on the Divisia index, where the integral path problem in the Divisia index is transformed into a parameter estimation problem. It is shown that there can be an infinite number of sets of decomposition results, each corresponding to a particular combination of parameter values, and that several recently proposed methods are in fact special cases of these two methods. We then introduce an approach to estimate the parameter values uniquely. Referred to as the Adaptive Weighting Divisia Method, this method is supported by vigorous mathematical analysis and does not involve arbitrary guesses of parameter valuesas is the case for the existing methods. We also discuss the application and the associated statistical problems of the various decomposition methods, and present the results of a study using the data for Singapore industry.

Decomposition of Aggregate Energy and Gas Emission Intensities for Industry: A Refined Divisia Index Method

B. W. Ang and Ki-Hong Choi

Year: 1997
Volume: Volume18
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol18-No3-3
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Several methods for decomposing energy consumption or energy-induced gas emissions in industry have been proposed by various analysts. Two commonly encountered problems in the application of these methods are the existence of a residual after decomposition and the handling of the value zero In the data set. To overcome these two problems, we modify the often used Divisia index decomposition method by replacing the arithmetic mean weight function by a logarithmic one. This refined Divisia index method can be shown to give perfect decomposition with no residual. It also gives converging decomposition results when the zero values in the data set are replaced by a sufficiently small number. The properties of the method are highlighted using the data of the Korean industry.

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