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A Panel Data Analysis of the Demand for Total Energy and Electricity in OECD Countries

This paper applies panel unit root, panel cointegration, and panel causality techniques to re-examine the total energy and electricity demand functions of 25 selected OECD countries during the 1978-2004 period. The panel results indicate that total energy demand is income inelastic and price inelastic, whereas electricity demand is income elastic and price inelastic. Based on the results of the panel causality test, there are reciprocal causal relationships among real income, real energy price, and total energy consumption. Furthermore, a uni-directional causality runs from income and electricity price to electricity consumption. The results for the panel as a whole suggest that the demand for total energy and electricity in the OECD countries is driven largely by strong economic growth, while consumers are largely insensitive to price changes.

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Energy Specializations: Energy Modeling – Energy Data, Modeling, and Policy Analysis; Electricity – Markets and Prices ; Electricity – Policy and Regulation

JEL Codes:
E61 - Policy Objectives; Policy Designs and Consistency; Policy Coordination
D42 - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design: Monopoly
E60 - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook: General

Keywords: Electricity, Elasticity, Energy demand function, Energy price, Income, panel cointegration

DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol31-No1-1

Published in Volume 31, Number 1 of The Quarterly Journal of the IAEE's Energy Economics Education Foundation.