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Is the World Oil Market "One Great Pool"?

Robert J. Weiner

Year: 1991
Volume: Volume 12
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol12-No3-7
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Abstract:
Is there one, global market for crude oil? This appears to be the assumption made by most petroleum economists, stated succinctly by Adelman in a recent issue of The Energy Journak "The world oil market, like the world ocean, is one great pool" (July 1984, p. 5). Policymakers have often implicitly held the opposite assumption - that the world market is fragmented - as evidenced by the efforts of many importing-country governments to seek special arrangements for "secure supply" from exporters in the 1970s and early 1980s. Likewise, oil exporters have sought "secure outlets" for their crude in the late 1980s and early 1990s. These arrangements make no sense if the world crude oil market is integrated. In a similar fashion, a policy of diversifying suppliers, which is practised by many importers now, is senseless in a globally unified market.



Measuring Economic Markets for Imported Crude Oil

Douglas G. Sauer

Year: 1994
Volume: Volume15
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol15-No2-6
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Abstract:
A previous paper by Weiner (1991) noted that many policy issues involving crude oil imports hinge on whether crude oil markets are unified or regionalized. Weiner observed that the literature on crude oil markets has paid little attention to the regionalization issue. However, a generalized literature addressing market delineation has been evolving for some time and recent advances in applied time series analysis have produced multivariate testing procedures which avoid most of the problems of the bivariate price correlation analyses previously employed in analyzing regionalization issues. This paper advances the work of Weiner by incorporating cointegration relationships into multivariate time series models and using these models to examine the extent of regionalization in the world market for crude oil imports. The empirical results reported here lend support to Adelman's characterization of the world oil market as "one great pool" (Adelman 1984).



Regionalization in the World Crude Oil Market

S. Gurcan Gulen

Year: 1997
Volume: Volume18
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol18-No2-6
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Abstract:
According to Weiner (1991), the world oil market is said to be unified' if prices for same quality crude oils from different regions of the world move together and regionalized otherwise. This hypothesis of Weiner is kept unchanged. However, we are more interested in the efficiency implications of a regionalized world oil market than its policy implications as discussed by Weiner. Specifically, if these prices deviate from each other, i.e., the market is fragmented, there will be arbitrage opportunities for crude oil traders which would render the market inefficient. In this paper, the regionalization hypothesis is investigated via cointegration tests using both spot and contract prices for fifteen crude oils. Three groups of similar quality crudes are formed based on API gravity and sulfur content. Tests of cross-group co-movement which provided evidence for significant quality differences between heavy and light crudes further supported our groupings. Then the co-movement of prices is tested within each group. The crash in 1986 is explicitly dealt with following methods described in Perron (1989). Results indicate that the world crude oil market is unified over the 1980-95 period.





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