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Industrial and Commercial Demand for Electricity by Time-of-Day: A California Case Study

Chinbang Chung, Dennis J. Aigner

Year: 1981
Volume: Volume 2
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol2-No3-7
View Abstract

Abstract:
Recently there has been much interest in time-of-use (TOU) pricing structures for electric utilities. TOU pricing reflects more closely than conventional pricing the cost components of supplying electricity, which vary over the course of a single day as well as over days of the week and seasons of the year. Although such pricing structures have long been used in Europe, they did not receive much attention in the United States prior to 1974.



Response of Industrial and Commercial Customers to Time-of-Use Rates

James J. Brzycki and Arlyn C. Frederick

Year: 1982
Volume: Volume 3
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol3-No2-10
View Abstract

Abstract:
In their article "Industrial and Commercial Demand for Electricity by Time of Day: A California Case Study," Chinbang Chung and Dennis J. Aigner present an econometric model of industrial demand for electricity by time of day and attempt to estimate relevant price elasticities.



An Analysis of Commercial and Industrial Customer Response to Time-of-Use Rates

Joseph G. Hirschberg and Dennis J. Aigner

Year: 1983
Volume: Volume 4
Number: Special Issue
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol4-NoSI-7
No Abstract



Distributed Lags and the Demand for Electricity

Ronald J. Sutherland

Year: 1983
Volume: Volume 4
Number: Special Issue
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol4-NoSI-9
No Abstract



The Simple Economics of Industrial Cogeneration

Paul L. Joskow and Donald R. Jones

Year: 1983
Volume: Volume 4
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol4-No1-1
View Abstract

Abstract:
Rising energy prices and dependence on insecure supplies of foreign petroleum have led energy consumers and energy policymakers to seek methods to use energy more efficiently. Industrial cogeneration has frequently been seen as such a method. By generating electricity in conjunction with the production of steam for industrial processes, less energy is used than when process steam and electricity are produced separately. Most recent U.S. energy policy studies have spoken favorably about the potential for cogeneration.' Some specific studies have indicated opportunities to replace central station electric power generation with industrial cogeneration capacity, and, in the process, to reduce domestic energy consumption substantially.



The Role of Energy in Productivity Growth

Dale W. Jorgenson

Year: 1984
Volume: Volume 5
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol5-No3-2
View Abstract

Abstract:
The objective of this paper is to analyze the role of energy in the growth of productivity. The special significance of energy in economic growth was first established in the classic study Energy and the American Economy 1850-1975, by Schurr and his associates (1960) at Resources for the Future. From 1920 to 1955, Schurr noted, energy intensity of production had fallen while both labor and total factor productivity were rising.' The simultaneous decline of energy intensity and labor intensity of production could not be explained solely on the basis of substitution of less expensive energy for more expensive labor. Since the quantity of both energy and labor inputs required for a given level of output had been reduced, technical change would also be a critical explanatory factor.From 1920 to 1955 the utilization of electricity had expanded by a factor of more than ten, while consumption of all other forms of energy only doubled. The two key features of technical change during this period were that (1) the thermal efficiency of conversion of fuels into electricity increased by a factor of three, and (2) "the unusual characteristics of electricity had made it possible to perform tasks in altogether different ways than if the fuels had to be used directly."2 For example, as Schurr noted, the electrification of industrial processes had led to much greater flexibility in the application of energy to industrial production.



Estimating Industrial Energy Demand with Firm-Level Data: The Case of Indonesia

Mark M. Pitt

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No2-3
View Abstract

Abstract:
A number of recent studies have analyzed the role of energy in the structure of production. Most have used either a single time series for a country's manufacturing sector or time series data pooled by country or manufacturing subsector. The absence of similar data sets for developing countries has precluded the same type of analysis of their production structures. This is unfortunate since the impact of higher energy prices on these countries has been at least as severe as on the industrial countries. Furthermore, since it is likely that their structure of production is significantly different, the results of the existing econometric literature may not be applicable in understanding the role of energy prices in their economies.



Industrial and Commercial Demand for Electricity by Time of Day

Derek Bosworth and Clive Pugh

Year: 1985
Volume: Volume 6
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol6-No3-8
View Abstract

Abstract:
The initial stimulus for this note came from Chung and Aigner (1981), which examined the impact of a major change in electricity tariff structure on industrial and commercial electricity demands. Using a translog cost function the authors investigate the effects on consumption of a change in the pricing practices of the Pacific Gas and Electricity Corporation (PGEC). Instead of charging a uniform price for electricity throughout the 24-hour period, PGEC switched to a "time of use" (TOU) pricing regime. The model performed well for 10 of the 13 industry groups over the 41-month period, and indicated a considerable variation across industries in the impact of TOU pricing. The authors find a general pattern of moderate response to TOU pricing in the peak period and some substitution among electricity demands over other times of the day. The industries that showed the most elastic demands were logging camps, paper mills, industrial gases, and cement manufacturers (as well as shopping centers and educational institutions in the nonmanufacturing sector). The limited available evidence suggests that a similar diversity of responses exists across industries in other countries (Mitchell, Manning, and Acton 1978, pp. 89-120).



Peak and Off-Peak Industrial Demand for Electricity: The Hopkinson Rate in Ontario, Canada

Dean C. Mountain and Cheng Hsiao

Year: 1986
Volume: Volume 7
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol7-No1-10
View Abstract

Abstract:
The Hopkinson rate consists of an energy charge for every kilowatt-hour of electricity a customer uses, plus an additional demand charge, a peak-demand charge on the maximum usage during the month. Historically, industries in North America have generally been charged a Hopkinson rate for electricity use. In 1983, for example, 97 percent (see Blinder [1984]) of the publicly owned electric utilities in North America had demand charges in their commercial/industrial rate structure, whereas only 11 percent had time-of-day rates. However, with the exception of papers by Corio and Trimnell (1978) and Veall (1981), the focus of empirical research on industrial firms (like the focus of research in the residential sector) has been on examining the impact of time-of-use rates (e.g. Chung [1978], Chung and Aigner [1981], and Panzar and Willig [1979]).



Choice of Technology and Long-Run Technical Change in Energy-Intensive Industries

Finn R. Forsund and Lennart Hjalmarsson

Year: 1988
Volume: Volume 9
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol9-No3-3
View Abstract

Abstract:
The difference between short-run and long-run flexibility in energy use is an important topic in energy demand modeling. Dynamic formulations are required to reveal this difference. The microeconomic foundation for the distinction between short- and long-run energy substitution possibilities is the embodiment of production techniques.




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