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Futures Trading and the European Oil Market

Peter J. W. N. Bird

Year: 1987
Volume: Volume 8
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol8-No3-8
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Abstract:
The subject of this paper is the behavior of daily gas oil futures prices on the London-based International Petroleum Exchange (IPE). It reports results consistent with the hypothesis that prices on the IPE follow a random walk.



Risk Premiums and Efficiency in the Market for Crude Oil Futures

Richard Deaves and Itzhak Krinsky

Year: 1992
Volume: Volume 13
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol13-No2-5
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Abstract:
The New York Mercantile Exchange's Crude Oil futures contract is investigated for the existence and nature of risk premiums and informational efficiency. During 1983-90, there is some evidence that short-term premiums were positive and covaried with recent volatility. As for efficiency, we find nothing inconsistent with weak-form efficiency, but some apparent violations cf semi-strong efficiency. We argue that, for a number of reasons, such rejections should be interpreted with caution.



Unit Root Behavior in Energy Futures Prices

Apostolos Serletis

Year: 1992
Volume: Volume 13
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol13-No2-6
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Abstract:
This paper re-examines the empirical evidence for random walk type behavior in energy futures prices. In doing so, tests for unit roots in the univariate time-series representation of the daily crude oil, heating oil, and unleaded gasoline series are performed using recent state-of-the-art methodology. The results show that the unit root hypothesis can be rejected if allowance is made for the possibility of a one-time break in the intercept and the slope of the trend function at an unknown point in time.



Developing Futures Markets for Electricity in Europe

Eirik Schroder Amundsen and Balbir Singh

Year: 1992
Volume: Volume 13
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol13-No3-5
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Abstract:
Risk sharing instruments, which allow consumers and producers to hedge their price-risk, are additional essential elements of the electricity reorganization process presently taking place in Europe. This paper involves tin analysis of the feasibility of establishing futures markets in the electricity sector in general and with special emphasis on steps undertaken in the United Kingdom and Norway. Even though there seems to be sufficient price uncertainty to warrant the development of futures markets, there remains the question of whether the underlying new spot-markets are yet sufficiently competitive and well-functioning. Monopolistic elements in electricity generation make it doubtful whether efficiency can be obtained through the intended (Bertrand) price competition in the spot-market. Additional problems may arise from the potential adverse response of dominant multi-objective public enterprises to the new futures markets.



The Role of Futures and Other Energy-Linked Financial Instruments

Mau Rogers and John Elting Treat

Year: 1994
Volume: Volume 15
Number: Special Issue
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol15-NoSI-15
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Abstract:
Significant volatility has become a way of life in the oil markets. Traders find this level of market volatility attractive. Managers find the uncertainty inherent in this complex and volatile environment both unsettling and expensive. It creates significant economic risk, managerial risk, and capabilities risk. The dramatic explosion in the size and sophistication of oil-linked financial instruments represents a response to volatility. These markets have forced companies to adopt new strategies, business processes, information systems, and organizational structures to remain competitive. We expect the future will see many oil-linked financial markets and products which will provide new risk management tools. These trends will reward firms that can successfully manage risks associated with credit, liquidity, complexity, and financial evaluation.



Business Cycles and the Behavior of Energy Prices

Apostolos Serletis and Vaughn Hullernan

Year: 1994
Volume: Volume15
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol15-No2-7
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Abstract:
This paper tests the theory of storage-the hypothesis that the marginal convenience yield on inventory falls at a decreasing rate as inventory increases in energy markets (crude oil, heating oil, and unleaded gas markets). We use the Fama and French (1988) indirect test, based on the relative variation in spot and futures prices. The results suggest that the theory holds for the energy markets.



An Econometric Analysis of the Market for Natural Gas Futures

W. David Walls

Year: 1995
Volume: Volume16
Number: Number 1
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol16-No1-5
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Abstract:
This research tests a form of the efficient markets hypothesis in the, market for natural gas futures. Unlike other studies of futures markets, the test for market efficiency is conducted at numerous locations which comprise the, natural gas spot market in addition to the delivery location specified in the futures contract. Natural gas spot and futures prices are found to be nonstationary and accordingly are modeled using recently developed maximum likelihood cointegration techniques. The futures market price is found to be cointegrated with nearly all of the spot market prices across the national network of gas pipelines. The hypothesis of market efficiency can be rejected in 3 of the 13 spot markets examined.



Regional Limitations on the Hedging Effectiveness of Natural Gas Futures

Emile J. Brinkmann and Ramon Rabinovitch

Year: 1995
Volume: Volume16
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol16-No3-5
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Abstract:
This paper examines the extent to which limitations in the transportation system for the natural gas market in the United States narrows the effectiveness of the NYMEX natural gas future contract as a hedging instrument and why a second contract with a different delivery point was approved during 1995. We find that the NYMEX contract is an effective hedging instrument for gas sold into pipelines for consumption in southern, eastern and midwestern states, but does, not provide an effective hedge for gas sold for Rocky Mountain and West Coast states.



Chaos in Natural Gas Futures?

Victor Chwee

Year: 1998
Volume: Volume19
Number: Number 2
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol19-No2-10
View Abstract

Abstract:
Technical analysis using charting techniques to forecast future price trends can be difficult due to the volatile and unpredictable nature of futures market. Alternatively, the emergence of chaos theory seeks to find order in random looking futures price behavior. Hence, this paper tests for the presence of nonlinearity and chaos using the NYMEX 1 -month, 2-month, 3-month, and 6-month daily natural gas settlement prices, from April 1990 to September 1996. In doing so, we use the BDS statistic of Brock, Dechert, and Scheinkman (1987) for nonlinearity testing and then proceed to compute the Lyapunov spectra to determine to what degree futures data resemble a chaotic system. Although the results indicate the presence of nonlinearity, they fail to provide significant evidence of deterministic chaos.



The Dynamics of Commodity Spot and Futures Markets: A Primer

Robert S. Pindyck

Year: 2001
Volume: Volume22
Number: Number 3
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol22-No3-1
No Abstract




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