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The Economic Implications of Reducing Carbon Emissions

Adrian Cooper, Scott Livermore, Vanessa Rossi, Alan Wilson and John Walker

Year: 1999
Volume: Volume 20
Number: Special Issue - The Cost of the Kyoto Protocol: A Multi-Model Evaluation
DOI: 10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol20-NoSI-13
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Abstract:
This paper presents the results of a series of simulations analysing the implications of measures to reduce carbon emissions in Annex 1 countries, conducted using the Oxford Global Macroeconomic and Energy Model. It shows that the GDP costs of reducing carbon emissions vary significantly across countries and that the cost depends on a number of critical factors including energy intensity, the rise in emissions in the base case and the amount of coal used especially in electricity generation. Moreover, it illustrates that a combination of macroeconomic rigidities and monetary policy responses to higher energy prices means that the output losses are likely to be substantial in the years immediately following the introduction of a carbon tax or similar emissions abatement policy.



Energy R&D Investments and Emissions Abatement Policy

Di Yin and Youngho Chang

Year: 2020
Volume: Volume 41
Number: Number 6
DOI: 10.5547/01956574.41.6.dyin
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Abstract:
The study examines the interactions of the energy R&D investments and the CO2 abatement policy using an endogenous energy R&D climate-economy model. Energy R&D investments affect the carbon emissions directly through efficiency improvements and indirectly by changing the comparative advantages of resources. This study considers the R&D investments in energy efficiency and low-carbon technology and explores how energy R&D investments accelerate the energy transition from fossil fuels to low-carbon technology. Three policies of carbon abatements are considered, namely, the optimal policy, the 2 �C policy, and the 1.5 �C policy. From the perspectives of benefits and costs, the optimal policy leads to the least abatement costs compared to the other two abatement policies. This study indicates that the more restrictive the abatement policy is, the more severe economic damage is caused in the short run, but more economic welfare is gained in the long run. Keywords: Energy R&D investments, Emissions abatement policy, Energy efficiency, Backstop technology, Energy substitution, Cost-benefit analysis, Climate change





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